An Overview of English Verb Tenses

m_verb_tenses

After taking a long break from learning English, I would like to make a review about English Verb Tenses. I make this as simple as possible. I hope there is a benefit we can get from this review. Btw, I made this in combination of English and Bahasa. Enjoy!🙂

English Verb Tenses is divided into 4 main parts:

  1. The Simple Tenses
  2. The Progressive Tenses
  3. The Perfect Tenses
  4. The Perfect Progressive Tenses

All of them is divided again into 3  time: Present, Past, and Future. So, there are 12 English Verb Tenses in total.

For The Simple Tenses, just remember the word “simple” in its name, so, it is the simplest English Verb Tenses. It gives the idea that an action is happen in a particular time (present, past, future).

For The Progressive Tenses, remember the word “progressive” in its name. It  gives the idea that an action is in progress during a particular time (present, past, future).

For The Perfect Tenses, remember the word “perfect” in its name. It gives the idea that one thing happens before another time or event. So, that one thing have finished or perfectly done.

For The Perfect Progressive Tenses, remember the word “perfect” and “progressive”. So, the action is in progress and become perfect in particular time or right before another action happens.

 

Below is the detail breakdown of each 12 English Verb Tenses:

SIMPLE PRESENT

  • Simple Present menyatakan hal yang benar di masa lalu, masa sekarang, dan masa depan. Simple Present biasa digunakan untuk pernyataan bersifat umum.
    • Ex: Jakarta is a capital city of Indonesia.
  • Simple Present juga digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas rutin atau sehari-hari.
    • Ex: I study for two hours every night.
  • Simple Present dapat juga digunakan untuk menyatakan situasi yang sedang terjadi.
    • Ex: I have only a dollar right now.

 

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

  • Present Progressive menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang dalam progress. Aktivitas dimulai dari waktu tertentu di masa lampau, berlanjut ke masa depan, dan akan berakhir di waktu tertentu di masa depan.
    • Ex: I am writing an article right now.
  • Present Progressive biasa digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang dalam progress dalam pekan, bulan, atau tahun tersebut.
    • Ex: I am taking five courses this semester.

 

PRESENT PERFECT

  • Present Perfect menyatakan aktivitas yang berlangsung atau tidak pernah berlangsung sebelum sekarang, dalam waktu tertentu di masa lampau. Waktu spesifik tidak perlu dinyatakan. Apabila waktu spesifik digunakan, maka gunakan Simple Past.
    • Ex 1: Have you ever visited Indonesia?
    • Ex 2: They have moved into a new apartment.
  • Present Perfect juga digunakan untuk menyatakan aktivitas berulang yang terjadi sebelum masa sekarang. Waktu spesifik terjadinya pengulangan aktivitas tidak perlu dinyatakan.
    • Ex 1: We have had four tests so far this semester.
    • Ex 2: I have met many people since I came here in August.
  • Present Perfect yang menggunakan “for” atau “since” menyatakan situasi yang dimulai di masa lalu dan berlanjut di masa sekarang. Dalam penggunaannya, “since” diikuti a particular time dan “for” diikuti dengan duration of time.
    • Ex 1: We have been here for two weeks.
    • Ex 2: I have been here since seven o’clock.

 

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

  • Present Perfect Progressive digunakan untuk menyatakan durasi aktivitas yang berlangsung di masa lalu dan berlanjut hingga masa sekarang. Biasanya menggunakan for, since, all morning, all day, all week.
    • Ex 1: It has been raining all day. It is still raining right now.
    • Ex 2: I have been thinking of you for 2 years.
  • Saat tenses ini digunakan tanpa menerangkan waktu yang spesifik, tenses ini menjelaskan aktivitas umum yang sedang ber-progress baru-baru ini.
    • Ex 1: John has been studying really hard to finish his thesis.
    • Ex 2: I have been thinking about changing my major.

 

SIMPLE PAST

  • Simple Past mengindikasikan aktivitas yang terjadi di masa lampau.
    • Ex: I climbed a mountain a week ago.

 

PAST PROGRESSIVE

  • Past Progressive menyatakan aktivitas yang berlangsung di masa lampau.
    • Ex 1: Last year at this time, I was attending school.
    • Ex 2: While I was studying in one room of our apartment, my roommate was having a party in the other room.
    • Ex 3: I was walking down the street when it began to rain.

 

PAST PERFECT

  • Past Perfect menyatakan aktivitas yang sudah selesai sebelum aktivitas lain dimulai di masa lalu.Ex 2: He had arrived before I got here.
    • Ex 1: My parents had already eaten by the time I got home.

 

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

  • Past Perfect Progressive menyatakan durasi sebuah aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung sebelum aktivitas lainnya di masa lampau.
    • Ex 1: Her skin was sunburned because she had been lying on the beach all afternoon.
    • Ex 2: The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him.
  • Past Perfect Progressive juga menyatakan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung hingga waktu tertentu atau saat aktivitas tertentu di masa lampau.
    • Ex 1: Her eyes were red because she had been crying.
    • Ex 2: When Judy got home, her hair was still wet because she had been swimming.

 

 

SIMPLE FUTURE

  • Simple Future menyatakan aktivitas yang akan berlangsung di masa depan.
    • Ex 1: I will wash the dishes tomorrow.
    • Ex 2: I will finish this work tomorrow.

 

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE

  • Future Progressive menyatakan aktivitas yang akan ber-progress di masa depan.
    • Ex 1: Don’t call me at nine because I won’t be home. I am going to be studying in class.
    • Ex 2: I will begin to study at seven. You will come at eight. I will be studying when you come.

 

FUTURE PERFECT

  • Future Perfect menyatakan aktivitas yang akan selesai sebelum waktu tertentu atau aktivitas tertentu di masa depan.
    • Ex 1: I will have finished my homework by the time I go out on a date tonight.
    • Ex 2: I will graduate in June. I will see you in July. By the next time I see you, I will have graduated.

 

FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

  • Future Perfect Progressive menyatakan durasi aktivitas yang akan sedang ber-progress sebelum waktu tertentu atau aktivitas tertentu di masa depan.
    • Ex: I will go to be at ten PM. He will get home at midnight. At midnight I will be sleeping. I will have been sleeping for two hours by the time he gets home.
  • Future Perfect Progressive juga menyatakan durasi aktivitas yang sudah ber-progress dari masa lalu sebelum waktu tertentu atau aktivitas tertentu di masa depan.
    • Ex 1: When Progessor retires next month, he will have been teaching for 45 years.
    • Ex 2: When Professor retires next month, he will have taught for 45 years. (Future Perfect)

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