To put it simply, IWRM is an approach to manage water resource in a sustainable way which is vary in the form of planning and policy-making. IWRM is done by involving various stakeholders from different level (local, regional, national, and international). The scope of IWRM is varied from (1) land and water, (2) surface water and groundwater, (3) the river basin and its adjacent coastal and marine environment, and (4) upstream and downstream interest.
Purpose of IWRM:
– To strengthen framework for water governance to foster good decision-making.
– To avoid the inefficiency of management, the money wasted, and the natural resource depleted.
– To make sure water is managed equitably especially for women and the poor.
– To make sure that water is used to advance the country;s social and economic development goals.
What is required for IWRM approach for policy-making and planning?
– Stakeholders are involved in water planning and management
– Water planning and management is integrated with broader social, economic, and environmental goals
– Water-related decisions is made by considering local condition which must be in line with broader national goals
– Policies and priorities in other sectors also take water into account.
Advantages of IWRM approach:
– IWRM approach makes identifying and implementing effective solutions becomes much easier. Water problems such as drought and groundwater depletion require multi-sector solutions and IWRM principles answer that.
– IWRM avoids poor investments and expensive mistakes. How? IWRM approach promotes consideration of environmental impacts from the outset. This avoids the lossed associated with unsustainable development and the high costs of undoing the damage later.
– IWRM approach in designing and managing infrastructure also makes it possible to capitalize on potential synergies and so make the most value for money investments. For example: combination of fisheries and irrigation that generate domestic and productiobe uses.
– IWRM approach allocate water strategically. For example, policy in water pricing and tariffs and innovation in technology generate efficiency in water use.
Different ways in water efficiency:
– Technical water efficiency
There are 3 types:
1. User efficiency: changing the user behavior
2. Water recycling and reuse: use the technology for recycling and reuse the water
3. Supply efficiency: Mostly in the form of efficiency in irrigation system and urban water supply schemes. For example: prevent leakage in pipe.
– Allocative efficiency
By making sure that water is allocated to the its highest value uses. For example: through water markets, water rights, systems or regulative or mechanism.
What need to be change for IWRM approach?
– The enabling environment: policies, legislative framework, financing and incentive structures
– Institutional roles: organizational framework and institutional capacity building
– Management instruments: water resource management, IWRM planning, instrument of demand, social change, regulatory, economic, and information.
– IWRM should be viewed as a process rather than a one-shot approach
– IWRM need to be responsive to change and be capable of adapting to new economic, social, and environmental conditions and to changing human values.